Arsenic, Selenium, Antimony ultra-trace analysis
These methods utilize chemosensors comprising polypeptides which coordinate to select metals and methods for selectively detecting the presence of metals. The hydride formation analytical apparatus comprises a sample-introducing part, a reagent-introducing part, a reaction part, a gas-liquid separating part and a detecting part, wherein an acid-feeding part and a reducing agent-feeding part are part of the reagent-introducing part; the hydride gas of the sample is formed by the aid of the acid and the reducing agent fed into the above reaction part; and this is introduced into the detecting part for analysis.
However, while these techniques provide a certain level of sensitivity, such may not be adequate at low concentration levels.
For example, low concentrations of As, Se and Sb found in many environmental and biological samples often demand even higher levels of sensitivity than is provided by the above described techniques. These and other needs of the present invention will become apparent to those of skill in the art upon review of this specification. These and other objects of the present invention will become apparent to those of skill in the art upon review of this specification. According to one embodiment of the present invention, there is provided an apparatus for processing a sample comprising a compound of interest.
The apparatus includes a hydride generator suitable for generating a hydride of the compound from the sample. According to another embodiment of the present invention, there is provided an apparatus for processing a sample comprising a compound of interest. The apparatus further includes an electrothermal atomizer positioned to receive and atomize the hydride from the hydride generator. In the above described apparatus, any suitable laser-based detection device may be utilized, but preferably a laser-induced fluorescence device or a laser-enhanced ionization device is utilized.
In the above described apparatus, any suitable hydride generator may be utilized, but preferably, a continuous flow hydride generator is utilized. The above apparatus are suitable for processing any type of compounds, more preferably for processing metalloid compounds, most preferably a compound comprising at least one selected from the group consisting of arsenic, selenium and antimony.
According to another embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a method for processing a sample. According to even another embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a method for processing a sample. For the above described methods, the hydrides are generated utilizing a continuous flow hydride generator. The above methods are suitable for any type of compounds, more preferably for processing metalloid compounds, most preferably a compound comprising at least one selected from the group consisting of arsenic, selenium and antimony.
These and other embodiments of the present invention will become apparent to those of skill in the art upon review of this specification. The apparatus of the present invention includes a hydride generator and further includes a laser-based detection system. It should be understood, that any suitable hydride generator may be incorporated into the apparatus of the present invention.
Online Determination of Mercury, Arsenic, Selenium and Antimony from Industrial Wastewater
Preferably, the apparatus of the present invention will comprise a continuous flow hydride generator. Thus, more preferably the hydride generator is suitable for generating hydrides of the metalloids, especially of arsenic, selenium and antimony. In an alternative embodiment, the apparatus of the present invention may also include an atomizer, preferably, an electrothermal atomizer, utilized for in situ trapping and atomizing of the hydride generated by the hydride generator. More preferably an Ar shielded H  2 —Ar flame atomizer.
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The apparatus is also described in article by Pacquette et al. Preferably, an electrothermal atomizer is utilized for in situ trapping and atomizing of the hydride. While the method of the present invention may be carried out utilizing any suitable apparatus, it is preferably carried out using the above described apparatus. The following examples are provided merely to illustrate some of the embodiments of the present invention, and are not meant to and do not limit the scope of the claims of the invention.
Quantification of Methylated Selenium, Sulfur, and Arsenic in the Environment
The dye lasers of both laser systems produced radiation near nm by frequency doubling of radiation using Coumarin dye, Exciton, Dayton, Ohio in a BBO I crystal. Frequency doubling typically reduced the pulse widths to 18 ns for the excimer pumped dye lasers. Tunable radiation from nm was then produced by stimulated Raman scattering SRS of the nm radiation in a 0. The desired outputs from the SRS cell were separated from other wavelengths using a quartz pellin broca prism and directed to the atomizer. The pulse widths of the SRS pulses were approximately ns for excimer pumped-dye laser sources and ns for the Nd:YAG pumped-dye laser source.
The spatial profile of the laser beam was slightly elliptical and typically had a diameter major axis of mm at the flame and ETA atomizers in all Examples. The former burner did not utilize an exterior sheath of flowing Ar and did not provide as high a sensitivity as the modified ICP torch burner. This burner was only used for initial characterization Examples, and included the speciation Examples. The laser beam intersected the flame at a height of mm above the tip of the quartz tube and was adjusted to optimize the signal for each element FIG.
The probe region of the flame atomizer was imaged with unit magnification onto a 0. Neutral density filters were used to attenuate the fluorescence emission at high signal levels. Acton Research Corp. Trapping and atomization took place in a 3 cm long graphite tube 0. In these Examples, analyte ionization was detected using two water-cooled electrodes in a flame that was irradiated by two collinear and counter propagating laser beams Scanmate 2 and Fl , Lambda Physik FIG. The temporal overlap of the two laser pulses was ensured by delaying the first earlier beam with an optical delay line and measuring their arrival with a fast photodiode DET, Thorlabs, Inc.
The flow rates of the flame gases were varied to optimize the LEI signal. The mixing ratios were different from those used for the LIF measurements, which was expected due to the role of thermal ionizations in the flame atomizer during LEI. Although the amplifer bandwidth could accommodate response times as short as 20 ns, signal to noise studies performed in the laboratory indicated that a response time of 2 ms was optimal for this system. Emeryville, Calif. A prereduction coil of about 10 m was used for Se speciation.
Solon, Ohio. The flow rates of the NaBH4 and sample were controlled by using tubing with different diameters. The flow rates of all the gases and solutions used are shown in Table 1. As one of the objects of the present invention is the determination of ultratrace levels of As and Se, only these two elements were studied by all three approaches. Flow rates of the solution and gases used for HG in these studies are given in Table 1. Measurements were taken at least 1 min.
Determinations of As and Sb were carried out in a similar way, except that 1. The hydride trapping process requires initial conditioning of the graphite tube which was fitted with a L'vov platform prior to taking measurements. This was followed by a conditioning step, according to the program in Table 2, to facilitate the trapping of the hydrides in the preheated graphite furnace. During HG, the hydride was delivered by a quartz tube inserted in the dosing hole of the graphite tube so that it just rested on the L'vov platform. After trapping 30 s of the hydride, the quartz tube was removed and atomization was performed using the program outlined in Table 2.
Trapping and atomization of Se was accomplished by conditioning of the graphite tube with one 20 ml aliquot of Pd matrix modifier prior to each measurement. After the Pd solution was dried, the hydride was trapped and atomized according to the program given in Table 3.
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Each sample was prereduced in a coil 10 m immersed in a beaker of boiling water FIG. The sample was further reduced with NaBH4 in the mixing block and reaction coil 1. The measurements were repeated using identical concentrations of sample solutions, but without prereduction of the sample. A total of minutes was required for prereduction and HG.
Akramipour R. Haghnazari L. Zeng C. Speciation of Arsenic III and Arsenic V based on Triton X hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Turker A. Speciation of trace metals and metalloids by solid phase extraction with spectrometric detection: A critical review.
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Solid phase microextraction method using a novel polystyrene oleic acid imidazole polymer in micropipette tip of syringe system for speciation and determination of antimony in environmental and food samples. Wang H. Ali J. Inorganic arsenic speciation in water samples by miniaturized solid phase microextraction using a new polystyrene polydimethyl siloxane polymer in micropipette tip of syringe system.
Nyaba L. Speciation of inorganic selenium in environmental samples after suspended dispersive solid phase microextraction combined with inductively coupled plasma spectrometric determination. Fan Z. Determination of antimony III and total antimony by single-drop microextraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Tolessa T. Single-drop gold nanoparticles for headspace microextraction and colorimetric assay of mercury II in environmental waters. Jia X. Londonio A. Online solid phase extraction- HPLC-ICP-MS system for mercury and methylmercury preconcentration using functionalised carbon nanotubes for their determination in dietary supplements.
Magnetic solid phase extraction for the determination of trace antimony species in water by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.
Arsenic, Selenium, Antimony ultra-trace analysis
Zhang L. Simultaneous speciation analysis of inorganic arsenic, chromium and selenium in environmental waters by 3- 2-aminoethylamino propyltrimethoxysilane modified multi-wall carbon nanotubes packed microcolumn solid phase extraction and ICP-MS. Zhao L. Zheng C. Headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to miniaturized microplasma optical emission spectrometry for detection of mercury and lead.
Point discharge optical emission spectrometer as a gas chromatography GC detector for speciation analysis of mercury in human hair. Lin Y. Ultrasensitive speciation analysis of mercury in rice by headspace solid phase microextraction using porous carbons and gas chromatography-dielectric barrier discharge optical emission spectrometry. Mester Z. Gas phase sampling of volatile organo metallic compounds above solid samples.