Enquete sur la formation des élites (French Edition)

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These access statistics were cross-referenced with parental socio-professional categories, since certain school districts are also areas of high unemployment.

Rachida El Azzouzi

The influence of these report sessions is also found in the French Community in Belgium. Demeuse, D. There are a few works that examine study-path choices and guidance throughout the world. In general, there are often tensions between individual choices and national economic constraints. This is the case in Laos or Burkina Faso, where study-path options are regulated at every level and, in Laos, based on school performance. One of the effects of the massification of education is the development of education markets, even within the state sector.

Schools' scope for strategising is, in theory, constrained by catchment area boundaries and sectoring; and yet these regulations at national level seem to break down when it comes to local arrangements. They illustrate this through case studies in Sweden and the United States, and draw parallels with the situation in Canada. Their analysis does not just examine competition between public establishments, but also competition between state schools and private schools.

We have seen that, in the United States, competition between pupils is strongly encouraged prior to higher education; after this point, highly selective university admissions practices come into play. The effects of this competition can be seen in the multitude of different offers that are competing on the education market, particularly between alternative schools charter schools and magnet schools and other public-sector establishments.

Subject to parental choice, their accountability lies in satisfying consumer demand and satisfaction. Linked by the charter that enabled their creation, they are expected to meet profitability objectives. They subscribe to market forces and have lost sight of their initial vocation, contrary to the intentions set out in the document published in October by the US Department of Education, A guide to education and no child left behind p. There are a number of reports that show the positive influence of competition from charter schools on state-school performance, such as John Bohte's article, published in in Policy Journal Studies , entitled Examining the Impact of Charter Schools on Performance in Traditional Public Schools , in which the author studies the situation in Texas, the state with the largest number of charter schools.

The conclusion: the strong positive effect on state-school performance is due to the strong competition that exists. To find elements for comparison, we must consult the report of the National Assessment of Educational Progress regarding America's charter schools. There seem to be no measurable differences in the teaching of reading, but lower results in mathematics, though these results need to be weighted according to the groups compared in terms of social or ethnic background.

Further reading

March , re-examines this report and notes that the evaluation criteria used raw data that was not correlated with pupils' starting ability levels, for example produced mixed and somewhat debatable results. The relativity of these results is also highlighted by Caroline M. These public establishments were created with a view to reducing racial segregation, which had increased because of parental avoidance strategies, by offering an attractive curriculum in schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods.

Magnet schools can be found at different teaching levels, from primary right through to higher education. As with charter schools, albeit to a slightly lesser extent, results regarding the effectiveness of such establishments have been mixed: do these schools help disadvantaged families trapped in inner-city areas, or do they serve only to increase segregation on financial grounds? Archbald uses quite an extensive nationwide study as the basis for his attempt to answer this question.

School-selection policies, intended to create greater racial and social diversity, can only be effective if they are backed up by regulation. The American education system seems focused on liberal solutions that favour parental choice; research into the effectiveness of specialised schools, however, does not seem to have been a priority. How can this process be regulated? Certain studies published recently put the emphasis on interdependence between schools and the need to regulate these interdependencies.

He lists a certain number of tools, actions and resources that should be implemented to complement these measures. These may be coercive regulation according to standards that schools are obliged to adopt , monitored by a regulatory authority or left to the choice of the schools concerned in this case, the authorities' role would be simply to inform or encourage.

In Bernard Delvaux's view, it is essential that measures apply to whole school districts. We have seen how the dual phenomena of elite education and segregation in schools are fuelled by competition between schools due to parental choice. This logic is taken to the extreme, since even significant reductions in pupil numbers in city centres has not led to a reduction in school capacity in these areas.

We can add to this French analysis an article that compares situations in France, England and the United States. In his view, the UK and the USA base their regulation on results, whereas in France regulation is based on incentives to implement relevant pedagogical measures. In his comparison of these two models, he does not deem one to be better than the other, but instead shows the potential effectiveness of using both models together. In fact, segregation is an effect of multiple behaviours that do not intend, at the outset, to cause segregation.

Second, university professors are recruited on a worldwide basis, which is fundamental. French students only enrolled if they failed the entrance examinations for the French engineering schools. Now, many people, including my own son, want to come and study at this school because of its excellent reputation. This is probably the only shortsightedness the Swiss have in terms of higher education. If it continues like this, it could become the most prominent French-speaking scientific institution in the world.

France has already taken notice. Those universities have an infinitely larger pool of English speakers to draw from. Switzerland is a small country. STI thus is making progress, but this momentum must continue, and the school knows it. This is why it has invested a lot of effort over the past few years into improving its reputation, promoting equal opportunity, and emphasizing excellence in both teaching and research.

This strategy is starting to pay off, and success in recruiting is one sign.

Some answers can be found in their interviews click to read. Among these recruits is Professor Giovanni De Micheli, who earned a PhD at Berkeley before becoming a full professor in electrical engineering at Stanford. He nevertheless thinks that more work needs to be done for EPFL to become one of the best universities.

According to him, " STI has the potential to shine at the very top of its chosen disciplines" read full interview. It has a very dynamic and collaborative research environment" read full interview. As a continuation of interest in the Brazilian baroque, an exhibition of such art occurred at the Petit Palais in Paris during In addition he published two works on literatura de cordel.

A further interest in comparative literature thereby encompasses Brazilian literature in relation to Latin America and the lusophone world. He was a leader at the Rio Conference. French study and writing on Brazil are centuries-old. French intellectual and cultural influence on the country was even paramount during much of the nineteenth and into the early twentieth century. What distinguishes the study of Brazil in France?

In relation to the modern American focus of Brazilian studies, several characteristics are apparent:. However, it rarely focuses exclusively on Brazil. In part this could be due to fewer academic or research positions in France exclusively for Brazil.

Generally Brazil is studied only as a 'case' within the context of a particular disciplinary focus or hypothesis such as the psychology of religion, literature in Portuguese, Third World economies, tropical native peoples, agriculture, ecology etc. The approach is more horizontally integrated than vertically.

However, the spelling preserves the 'a' of the English term, a recondite example of franglais. Production of the last half century is of a wide, integrative nature, several works, especially in anthropology and social psychology, having become seminal classics. There is often an ideological and social camaraderie of "subaltern elites," allowing them to operate as gadflys to the anglophone, neo-liberal social science establishment Pierre Bourdieu possibly questioning such an enclave.

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What do rankings tell us about Engineering at EPFL? – STI — School of Engineering

Due to the modern francophone community or the older French empire, French social scientists have generations of experience in working familiarly in subtropical or tropical environments, such as the Caribbean, west Africa, the Middle East, and southeast Asia. Quite important also is the French conception of and respect for negritude , the originality of African art and culture, and the adaptive, integrative character of French civilisation. However, due to factors of scholarship funding and changing interests in fields of study, the number of such students is declining.

In addition to the scholarly works of the post-WWII period, a considerable increase has occurred in recent decades in the production of doctoral dissertations on Brazil at French universities. The volume has an insightful preface by Anita Pires-Saboia.

More than 98 percent appeared in the period to Most significantly, 95 percent have appeared since , and At the heart of this increase, of course, was one which also affected the US, the expansion of higher education. Almost half Another three fields, literature The remaining areas are the anthropology 6. The social sciences overwhelmingly dominate and the tradition of the science d l'homme. The expansion of study of Brazil occurred due to several factors.